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Mobile phone positioning technology refers to a technology or service that uses a specific positioning technology to obtain the location information (longitude and latitude coordinates) of the phone, and to mark the location of the positioned object on an electronic map, or a technology that uses GPS and base stations to locate the phone . The GPS-based positioning method uses the GPS positioning module of the mobile phone to send its position signal to the server to realize the mobile phone positioning. Base station positioning uses the base station to measure the distance and finally determine the location of the mobile phone. The latter does not require the mobile phone to have GPS positioning capabilities, but the accuracy largely depends on the density of the base station, and the error sometimes exceeds one kilometer. The former has higher positioning accuracy. In addition, there is a way to use Wifi to locate in a small area.
GSM mobile phone positioning methods can generally be divided into two types: network-based and terminal-based. Technically, it can be divided into three methods: Time of Arrival (TOA), Enhanced Measurement Time Difference (E-OTD) and GPS Assist (A-GPS).
The TOA positioning method can be implemented on any existing mobile phone without any changes to the mobile phone. Specific implementation steps:
The TOA positioning method requires additional hardware (LMU) to accurately calculate the arrival time of the burst signal. There are many ways to realize it: LMU can be integrated in the BTS or as a separate device. When the LMU is used as a separate device, it can have a separate antenna or share an antenna with the BTS to realize inter-network communication through the air interface.
Specific implementation steps: E-OTD positioning method is developed from the measurement of time difference (OTD), OTD refers to the amount of time obtained by measurement, and E-OTD refers to the method of measurement. The mobile phone does not need to attach any hardware to get the measurement results. For a synchronous network, the mobile phone measures the relative arrival time of several BTS signals; for a non-synchronous network, the signal also needs to be received by an LMU with a known location. Once the signal transmission time from the BTS to the mobile phone is determined, the geometric distance between the BTS and the mobile phone can be determined, and then the calculation is performed based on this distance to finally determine the location of the mobile phone. Specific implementation steps:
The implementation steps of GPS-assisted positioning are as follows: GSM network receives GPS auxiliary information; GSM network sends auxiliary information to mobile phone; mobile phone obtains GPS information, calculates and obtains its precise position; mobile phone sends position information to GSM network. There are two methods for this method: mobile phone assistance and mobile phone autonomous:
This solution is to transfer most of the functions of the traditional GPS receiver to the network processor. This method requires equipment such as antennas, RF units, and data processors. The GSM network sends a string of very short auxiliary information to the mobile phone, including time, visible satellite list, satellite signal Doppler parameters and code phase search window. These parameters help the built-in GPS module to reduce GPS signal acquisition time. The auxiliary data comes from the pseudo-distance data generated by the GPS module of the mobile phone and can last for several minutes. After receiving these pseudo-distance data, the corresponding network processor or positioning server can roughly estimate the location of the mobile phone. After necessary corrections are added to the GSM network, the positioning accuracy can be improved.
This kind of mobile phone contains a full-featured GPS receiver with all the functions of a mobile phone, plus satellite position and mobile phone position calculation functions. At the beginning of the calculation, more data is required than the mobile phone assistance method. These data can last for more than 4 hours or be updated as needed, usually including time, reference position, satellite ephemeris and time calibration parameters. If some applications require higher accuracy, you must continuously (interval about 30s) send differential GPS (DGPS) signals to the mobile phone. The DGPS signal is effective in a very wide area, and a reference receiver can serve a wide area. The final location information is calculated by the phone itself, and this location information can be sent to any other application.
In order to speed up the positioning time, most mobile phones will connect to the network and download the auxiliary data of AGPS to know the current satellite status and which satellites can be received, so that the module can quickly capture the signal for positioning.
Another situation is that a lot of software will request its own location when starting positioning, such as calling the interface to use integrated positioning methods, such as base station information, WiFi information, etc., to quickly give you an estimated location, and then go to GPS positioning. At this time, a network connection will also be generated. In fact, it can be located without opening the network connection, but it is slower. The mobile phone is normal within 1-2 minutes, of course, provided that there is not too much blockage. With the current development, the positioning method has been integrated. The system interface will quickly provide location information through WiFi, base station, GPS, etc., and gradually provide a higher accuracy location in the background.
In the current situation, there are two types of characteristics that have this kind of spatial location invariance and are easily acquired by mobile devices:
1. Base station information of mobile communication network
2. Access point information of wireless LAN
Therefore, when the base station information and WLAN AP information captured by the mobile device are consistent with the information previously captured, it can be considered that the user should be basically in the same location. If the base station information and WLAN AP information that can be detected in a place are collectively referred to as the electromagnetic spectrum characteristics of the place, and the relationship between the electromagnetic spectrum characteristics and the coordinates is recorded in the database, then the so-called positioning is actually based on the electromagnetic spectrum The process of feature finding spatial coordinates.
The above is a theoretical analysis of the basic principles of base station and WIFI positioning. From a practical point of view (program developer's perspective), what we need is to use the positioning interface provided by the service provider to send relevant electromagnetic signals to it. Spectrum features are used to obtain the spatial position of the corresponding features recorded in the database without having to care about the details of the algorithm behind it.
A functional mobile phone is always able to receive various wireless signals. The "local uniqueness" of these wireless signals is a key prerequisite for the positioning of the device. What is local uniqueness? Let us explain these specific signals and you will know.
A mobile phone can make calls and send and receive text messages, indicating that the mobile phone can initiate interaction with nearby base stations and send and receive signals. In particular, for smart phones, the base station ID can also be obtained through the system interface. Under normal circumstances, each base station ID is unique in the world, so if we scan a certain base station ID and we know the location of the base station, we can roughly estimate the location of the device. The premise for making this guess is that the signal transmission range of a base station is limited, and a normal mobile phone cannot receive the signal from this base station when it is far away. In textbooks related to wireless communication, when it comes to base station positioning, triangulation is always talked about. A mobile phone can scan the signals of three base stations, so it must be in the common coverage area of the three base stations, so the estimated range is much larger. Zoom out.
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